ISO 1928:2009 specifies a method for the determination of the gross calorific value of a solid mineral fuel at constant volume and at the reference temperature of 25 °C in a bomb calorimeter calibrated by combustion of certified benzoic acid.
The result obtained is the gross calorific value of the analysis sample at constant volume with all the water of the combustion products as liquid water. In practice, fuel is burned at constant (atmospheric) pressure and the water is not condensed but is removed as vapour with the flue gases. Under these conditions, the operative heat of combustion is the net calorific value of the fuel at constant pressure. The net calorific value at constant volume can also be used; equations are given for calculating both values.
General principles and procedures for the calibrations and the fuel tests are presented in the main text, whereas those pertaining to the use of a particular type of calorimetric instrument are described in annexes. Checklists for performing calibration and fuel tests using specified types of calorimeters and examples illustrating some of the calculations are also given.